Goals. Many stories start with that, but not all. Beautiful tales have been written without an obvious vector, but as a reader and writer my attention soon wanders if I don’t know “where are we going.” A firm bond with the protagonist is what every reader/listener/viewer has sought since the invention of cave painting and campfires — a struggle against the forces that block our path to a better life or at least survival.
Teaching would-be writers how to use this essential feature, of course, can be commodified. According to the “How-to-be-a-famous-storyteller” industrial complex, the main character should “want X, but really need Z” to be compelling. Okay. Transformation is desirable, even more preferably Improvement.
So at the risk of getting entangled in the “wants X, but really needs Z” theory of plot development, let’s get oriented. But first there’s a problem here. Vernacularly speaking (is that redundant?), non-storytelling-obsessed persons use “want” and “need” interchangeably. So maybe those aren’t the best terms to use when exploring the soul of your focus character. [I’m not saying “main character” since any character you care about should be considered this way.]
I prefer thinking “external” for Wants and “internal” for Needs. A Want, which will often be obvious early in a story, is tangible, physical, easy to understand. (eg, The person wants a Lexus? Okay, but why? The answer to that could be the Need, which might be superficial or could be profound.) Eventually the Want has to be SHOWN as achieved — or not achieved — so the reader can “visually” evaluate the state of things. Is is silver or black or crushed in a junkyard?
An intangible, internal Need may be expressed just in the character’s thoughts, but it’s better for the reader if it’s demonstrated somehow. For instance, if a person wants “to not feel alone,” what they DO should show us that they feel alone, and later something happens to prove that Need is fulfilled — eg, someone stands beside them at last to share each other’s ups and downs. (I state the Obvious.)
If “learn to trust people” is one of the person’s Needs, show multiple instances (apparently three is the magic number) of where the person doesn’t take someone’s advice, let’s say, and that gets them into trouble. Trust is a deliciously malleable attribute.
The writing gurus say: The Main Character thinks she Wants “X” (which is something superficial and external), and goes for that, but LEARNS partway through what will really make her a stronger person, what she really Needs, is “Z,” something significant and internal that she discovers in herself. Writing coaches and agents talk about growth, a change for the better, as a good feature of a story.
Whatever you call it, whatever formula espouses it, I’m finding it helps me understand my characters better, and hopefully my readers.